Buddhist Meditation is well-known in around the world. Basically, it is the science of mental development and mental healing in some extent, benefiting a practitioner in daily life, a path leading to the cessation of suffering. All the Buddha’s teachings are summarized into single item, that is apamāda-heedlessness; neither heedlessness nor heedfulness spring from mind. All mental phenomena of mind produce karma-action; all results of action are from the mind. So mind needs training, controlling in order to lead to the righteous way, to create the rightful and beneficial results.
Buddhist Meditation is a paramount important course that all Buddhists should learn and practice in order to obtain the genuine knowledge of Buddhism. As merely learning cannot taste the real dharma; it is like having a medical prescription, without applying it one may not gain fully benefits. Training under a teacher is the source of friendly guideline of practicing and practitioners need a kalayamitta acarya who can work along the spiritual way with them in order to reach the advanced level of spiritual practices or even attain the highest goal of meditation.
Luangpor Teean is one of the contemporary meditation masters. He is a friendly master, whose meditation technique is different from other schools. Some may say that his meditation technique is like Zen meditation. But if we look carefully and seek for the original canonical texts, we will find out that his technique is also included and appears satipathana sutta and mahasatipathana sutta, describing the concept the Four Foundation of mindfulness through kaya, vedana, citta and dharma. Therefore, Luangpor Teean’s technique is regarded as kayanupassana satipathana because he focused on dynamic moment of the body, to improve self-awareness without any recitation of parikamma words.
This mini-research will explore into details of Luangpor Teean’s life, his work, his meditation techniques and how influential he is to Thai and foreign practitioners.
1. Biography of Luangpor Teean
The life of Luangpor Teean is of some interest in itself. He realized the true Dharma while he was a layman, which is very unusual (and for some hard to credit) in the monastically centered world of Thai Buddhism. His experience of Dharma involved a sudden way of knowing, which is common in the history of Ch’an Buddhism in China and Zen Buddhism in Japan. In contemporary term, Luangpor Teean can be seen as a teacher of “sudden enlightenment” as Huineng, the sixth supreme patriarch of China.
Luangpor Teean Jittasubho or Pann Intapew was born on September 5, 1911, at Buhom, a small village, Amphur Chiengkhan, the Province of Loei. He was the fifth child of Chin and Som Intapew. His father died when he was young. In his childhood, there was no school in his village, so he did not have formal education. Like other boys in the village, he had to help his mother in running their farm. He had 4 brothers, namely: Sai, Pooi, Oun, and Phu; and one sister, now called Aunt Norm, who is still alive while others are gone.
At the age of eleven, he was ordained as a novice at the village monastery, Wat Poo or Wat Bunpotkiri under Yakhuphong Chansuk, who was his uncle, a resident monk. There, he studied Laotian scripts and Laodham scripts (ancient local scripts) for one year and six months. He also started practicing various meditation methods including “Bud-dho” and breath counting methods. Then he disrobed and returned to his home.
Again, at the age of twenty, following the tradition, he was ordained as a monk. This time, he was more interested in studying and practicing meditation with his uncle for six months. He returned to lay life again and married at the age of twenty-two, he had three sons, Niam, Teean, and Triam. After his eldest son died, his name Pan became “Por Teean” means father of Teean, his second son in accordance with the local tradition of calling a parent by the name of the eldest living child. In his lay life, he was always a leader of Buddhist activities and was highly respected and chosen to be the village head for three times. Even though huge responsibilities, he practiced meditation regularly.
Later, he moved to Chiengkhan, a large community, where his son could attend school. As a merchant, he sailed his steamboat along the Mekong River between Chiengkhan-Nongkai-Vientiane, or even as far as Luangprabang. At that time, he had opportunities to meet with many meditation masters and his pursuit of Dhamma (the Truth) continued to strengthen. He had practiced, made merits, and been practicing for many years but still had not realized the Truth. Therefore, he finally determined to find new way of practice.
In Search of the truth:
After establishing his family’s well-being, supported his wife financial security for a living. Por Teean strongly determined to travel in search of the truth and not to return home unless he found the true Dhamma. In 1957, at the age of nearly forty-six, he left his home to Wat Rangsimukdaram, Tambol Pannprao, Amphur Tabon in Nongkai Province (Amphur Srichiengmai at present), where he wanted to meet Mahaseechan, with whom he wanted to practice. But Mahaseechan went to spend the rains-retreat in Luang Prabang, Laos. There was another monk, whose name was Achan Pan Anando, a Laotian monk. There, Por Teean practiced under Achan Pan Anando, who taught him a form of body-moving meditation, where each movement and the pause at the end of that movement were accompanied by the silent recitation of the words “moving-stopping.” Por Teean or Pan had decided to spend that retreat in Laos. Within a couple of days, on the early morning of the eleventh day of the waxing moon, the eighth month of 1957, his mind reached the End of Suffering completely without traditional rituals or teachers.
The following day, Achan Pan Anando came to interview Por Teean, and knew that he realized the true Dharma then he proclaimed to other practitioners to say Anumodanā. As the goal had been reached, the way he had to walk was ended, Por Teean had nothing to do more, and then he returned home.
His Propagation of the Buddha’s Teachings:
After realizing the true dharma, he returned home to teach his wife and relatives what he had found. He had taught for two years and eight months as a lay teacher then he decided to re-enter monkhood in order to be in a better position to teach the people. The ordination was made on February 3, 1960.
Later he returned home. He taught his wife and relatives what he had found for two years and eight months, as a lay teacher. He then decided to re-enter monkhood in order to be in a better position to teach the people. At the age of 48, on February 3, 1960, he was re-ordained as a monk at Wat Srikhunmuang in his hometown under a senior monk named Vijitdhammacariya. At the ordination, he was given the Pali name” Cittasubho” means “the brilliant mind”, but people usually called him” Luangpor Teean” (Venerable Father Teean). He was known by that name throughout the rest of his life.
After Luangpor Teean realized the true Dharma or became enlightened, he spent his life teaching the Dharma for 28 years. He established the first two meditation centers at Wat Santivanaram and Wat Phonchai, in Chiangkhan. He also crossed to Laos and built a meditation center there, where he was once accused of being a communist monk during the anti-communist atmosphere of the 1960s. Once, there was a young-high-ranking police man, who came as a monk to spy on Luangpor Teean. Amazingly, Luangpor Teean taught him how to practice meditation. After, meditating for some time, he began to know the Dharma. He then paid homage to Luangpor Teean and confessed to him about his earlier purpose. Afterwards, the false rumours and accusations about Luangpor Teean gradually ended.
In 1982, Luangpor Teean was diagnosed to have stomach cancer (malignant lymphoma). In spite of his illness he continued his work actively and incisively. During his illness of cancer, he was invited twice to Singapore to give Dhamma talks. In Thailand, he continued his missionary works as giving public talks, leading meditation retreats. He built his final meditation centre at Thapmingkhwan in the town of Loei in 1983 and added Ko Phutthatham, a large nearby area, to it in 1986. He taught actively and incisively until the disease reached its critical stages.
He was hospitalized in the hospital and when he realized that he was near to death, Luangpor Teean discharged himself from the hospital and returned to Ko Phutthatham in Loei province. Late in the afternoon, he renounced that he was now going to die. On September 13, 1988 at 6:15 PM., he passed away calmly at the age of seventy-seven in a hut on Koh Buddhadhamma, Tabb Ming Kwan, and Tambol Gudpong in Loei Province.
2. The Way of Meditation Practice
Luangpor Teean’s meditation technique is different from other schools. His unique technique of meditation is that he applied not parikamma words like Bud-dho, samma-araham, or whatever words, and concerned not with rituals nor included in the Scriptures.
However, to my understanding, even he did not use any parikamma word; the technique he taught is countable to refer to the Tipitaka, in Mahasatipatthana Sutta (Digha Nikaya 22) and in Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta-the four foundation of mindfulness, the two suttas include the same Dhamma which are as follows:
1. Kāyaanupassana Satipatthāna: Contemplation of the body; mindfulness as regards the body.
2. Vedanānupassanā Satipatthāna: Contemplation of feelings; mindfulness as regards the feelings.
3. Cittānupatthanā Satipatthāna: Contemplation of mind; mindfulness as regards mental conditions.
4. Dhammānupassanā Satipatthāna: Contemplation as mind objects; mindfulness as regards ideas.
Here, in referring to the Tipitaka, the teaching of Luangpor Teean is also counted as the principles of 4 foundations of mindfulness which can be compared to be a key or to perfect vehicle that one uses for traveling: one passes through continuously. Mindfulness regards as the body, contemplation on the body, but just keeps awareness on the rhythmically bodily movement without reciting any words, like “Bud-dho”, “samma-araham”. Luangpor Teean’s meditation technique is concentrated on the constant movement, be aware with the movement, it is called mahasati meditation. In so doing, dukkha-suffering comes to an end whenever we develop our sati or mindfulness, the mindfulness will be the champion, it lets no room for suffering to exist and at the end it disappears.
To see our own mind clearly,
Without being caught up in its movement,
To watch thought without trying to do anything with or about it,
Simply seeing it and letting go of it,
This is the way to free from dukkha.
In his technique, if we look carefully, he not only taught to notice and be aware of the bodily moment, but also to see the mental phenomena and feelings. When seeing the rising and falling of nama and rupa, letting go of it, but most of the times, if the sati is sharpest, dukkha has no chance to appear. The stronger mindfulness is developed, the more dukkha reduced, and the last wisdom arises and find no more attachment. This is the way Luangpor Teean has discovered.
Dynamic Meditation Practice
The school of Luangpor Teean’s meditation technique has been named as ” Dynamic Meditation” or “Mahasati Meditation”. It is a practical way of cultivating self-awareness. We do not have to study the Scriptures because they are only words. Studying the Scriptures is not the way to Enlightenment. This practice is the way to Enlightenment.
In order to cultivate and develop self-awareness to achieve Sati-Samadhi, new way of Luangpor Teean is to practice through observe the rhythmic movement of the body. The way of sitting is not to be still but move continuously, rhythmically all the time. Do not need to close eyes. You can sit any position or on a chair, stand or lie down.
The techniques are:
1. To develop awareness by oneself until one knows it, understands it, and discovers it in one’s body and mind.
2. Apply proper technique and hold the right understanding (samma ditthi)
3. Do not stay still; move all the time.
4. Practice intensively using the technique without any demands or expectations. The result will come by itself.
The Rhythmic Practice
Here, rhythmic practice means to move constantly, not be still while sitting, observing the movement, observe the body, mind, feeling, thought, the rising and falling of phenomena. The constant and regular practice will lead to the sudden enlightenment that is to see the nama-rupa become extinct. See the illustration below:
There are 15 steps of movement in sitting meditation as the above illustrated figures and the explanation shown below:
1. Rest the hands palm down on the thighs.
2. Turn the right hand onto its edge, be aware; do it slowly, then stop. Do not say to yourself “turn the right hand”, being aware is enough.
3. Raise the right hand up, be aware, and then stop.
4. Lower the right hand to rest on the abdomen, be aware, and then stop.
5. Turn the left hand onto its edge, be aware, and then stop.
6. Raise the left hand up, be aware, and then stop.
7. Lower the left hand to rest on the right hand, be aware, and then stop.
8. Move the right hand up to rest on the chest, be aware, and then stop.
9. Move the right hand out, be aware, and then stop.
10. Lower the right hand onto its edge on the thigh be aware, then stop.
11. Face the right palm down, be aware, and then stop.
12. Move the left hand up to rest on the chest, be aware, and then stop.
13. Move the left hand out, be aware, and then stop.
14. Lower the left hand onto its edge on the thigh is aware, and then stop.
15. Face the left palm down, be aware, and then stop.
There are 8 steps of rhythmic movement in standing, 7 steps in sitting down. Besides the sitting meditation postures, which are the way to cultivate self-awareness, there are other positions should always counted and be aware, such as lying on our left-side, right-side or laying flat on our back; getting up form the left-side, from the right-side and from laying flat on our back. You should cultivate self-awareness frequently.
Cankama Walking: Walking back and forth
Unlike other schools of meditation practices, the Cankama walking meditation is also like the sitting. Without any words of parikamma are recited but observe the constant walking movement. Practitioners do not need to say “right foot moves”, “left foot moves” or even “bud-dho” as guideline shown below:
ü Do not move the arms while walking.
ü Fold the arms across the chest, or clasp the hands behind the back.
ü Be aware the feeling of the feet while you are walking back and forth.
ü Not necessary to verbally or silently recite parikamma words like, “Right foot moves”, “left foot moves”.
ü Do not walk too fast or too slow, walk naturally.
ü Be aware while you are walking. If you walk without self-awareness, it is useless.
Cultivating Self-awareness in Daily Life
According to Luangpor Teean, besides the regular practice in the meditation centers or at home, one can cultivate as much as possible at any position and at any movement even when being on board. While we are sitting on a bus or in a car, there are techniques as follows
On a bus or a car:
ü Lay our hand on the thigh and turn the palm up and down,
ü We run the thumb over the fingertip,
ü We make a fist and open it repeatedly.
ü Do it slowly and be aware.
ü Wherever or whenever you practice, take it easy like playing.
ü Only move one hand at a time,
ü Do not move both hands at the same time.
ü If you move the right hand, do not move the left hand.
ü If you move the left hand, do not move the right hand.
By doing so, in any movement, one may have not an excuse to say that” I am busy; I do not have a chance to practice”. Luangpor Teean suggested cultivating at any movement even when eating, walking, etc. This is the natural way to practice and cultivate the self-awareness.
Practice Continuously Like a Chain
In order to cultivate self-awareness, one needs to practice continuously like a chain or the hands of the clock that rotate all the time. To practice continuously like a chain or like the rotating hands of the clock does not mean that you have to cultivate self-awareness by doing rhythmic arm movement or
Walking back and forth all the time. The word “to practice all the time” means to be aware while doing all daily tasks; washing clothes, sweeping floor, cleaning house, washing dishes, writing, or buying and selling, just be aware. This awareness will accumulate little by little like the raindrops fall into a good container and fill it to the brim. When we walk forwards or backwards, move the hand in or out, be aware. When we go to bed, we can make a fist and open it repeatedly until we fall asleep. When we wake up, we should continue our practice. This is called cultivating self-awareness.
Luangpor Teean summarized the “object of practice” in dynamic meditation as follows:
Stage 1: Suppositional object
Sasana (“religion”), Buddhasasana (“Buddhism”)
Papa (“sin”), punna (“merit”)
Stage 2: Touchable object
(Container of normality-setting up the mind-knowing)
Samatha (concentration) and vipassana (insight) types of calmness
(The taint of “sensuality”, being, not-knowing)
The results of bad bodily, verbal, and mental actions, and their combination; he results of good bodily, verbal, and mental actions, and their combination; the state of koet-dap (arising-extinction).
The “object of practice” in dynamic meditation is a series of experiences by which the mind progresses step by step towards the end of suffering. These experiences are those – inner as well as physical – discovered by Luangpor Teean. They now serve as guideposts for the practitioners of dynamic meditation.
During the first stage of dynamic meditation, the suppositional object, one is supposed to know rupa-nama, its acting and its disease. Rupa-nama is known when the body (rupa) and the awareness of the body (nama) are harmonized. Then each movement is the movement of rupa-nama (body-mind). Luangpor Teean explained that for a disease of the body, one needs medical care from a doctor or a hospital. For the diseases of the mind, whose symptoms are distress, frustration, anger, greed delusion, and so on, one needs awareness and a method to stimulate and develop awareness. In practicing dynamic meditation, the mind comes to know the rupa-nama characteristics of dukkham-aniccam-anatta.
3. His Influences on Thai and Foreigners
3.1. His Influence on Thai Buddhism:
It would be rightly to say that Luangpor Teean has made a distinction and a new contribution to Thai Buddhism. His technique of meditation practice cut through the traditional belief and rituals. At first, after he realized the Dhamma, his teachings stunned many highly contemporary Thai Buddhist scholars, whose education obtained academically or by pariyatti education while Luangpor Teean, if it is allowed to say, was an illiterate monk, from the remote area.
After gaining the true Dhamma, Luangpor Teean traveled around the country delivery the True messages of the Dhamma. He established several meditations starting from his hometown and spread out through Thailand. Wat Sanamnai is one of his meditation centers, where he stayed there teachings the Dhamma for many years before returning to his hometown in Loei province.
Luangpor Teean’s Disciples:
During his lifetime, he gained many prominent disciples, who have become his successors of the Dhamma. In 1967, Luangpor Thong Abhokaro, who is the present abbot of Wat Sanamnai, he continues the way of practice of the mahasati meditation until now. Other monk disciples of Luangpor Teean are Achan Khamkhian Suvanno and Achan Da Sammakhato, Bhikkhu Nirodho, Luangpor Maha-Direk Buddhayanandho and there are many more that cannot be mentioned here. Besides monk disciples, one of Luangpor Teean’s lay disciples is Anchalee Thaiyanond, who is the successor of the Dhamma of Luangpor, wrote the books,” Concentration-Insight, Against the Stream, Where is Nibbana, Luangpor Teean’s Dynamic Meditation”, Tavivat Puntarigvivat, Vatana Supromajakr, M.D. There are many more his prominent disciples and work as meditation masters of mahasati meditation practice.
Branches of Meditation Centers:
ü In 1960, Luangpor Teean built the first two meditation centers at Wat Santivanaram and Wat Phonchai, in Chiangkhan.
ü In 1966, built meditation centre at Wat Paphutthayan outside the town of Loei province.
ü In 1971, built a meditation centre at Wat Mokkhavanaram outside the town of Khonkaen.
ü In late 1976, founded a meditation centre, Wat Sanamnai, on the outskirts of Bangkok.
Besides these meditation centres, there are about 50 meditation centres in across Thailand under Luangpor Teean’s disciples that cannot be mentioned here. Of them, his teachings still flourish under the leadership of his successors of the Dhamma. In Bangkok, the meditation is at Wat Sanamnai, where is accessible to come and practice and now is under the abbey of Luangpor Abhakaro, who met Luangpor Teean in 1967, and practice Mahasati meditation under his guidance then attained the state of realizing the extinct of rupa and nama within 30 days, and now he is an acting abbot of Wat Sanamnai.
Thai Buddhist Reformist:
Luangpor Teean was the founder of mahasati meditation. His way of meditation practices and his teachings amazed many meditation masters, especially, the scholar monks, who ever studied pariyatti. Many monks did not agree with Luangpor Teean’s teachings due to the fact that what Luangpor Teean taught is out of or beyond the teachings contain in the Scriptures and without any rituals. Another reason is that Luangpor Teean was regarded as illiterate monks in the eyes of those who were highly educated monks. However, in 1975, being recognized by Kovit Khemmananda, as the grand mahasati meditation master, the great enlightened wisdom, Luangpor Teean became a figure of interest to intellectuals and students in Bangkok and throughout the country.
Luangpor Teean’s teachings spread widely throughout the country and even abroad. During his lifetime, he traveled to lead meditation retreats, gave meditation guidance to various meditation centers. His teachings available in magazines, books, audio, and he gave Dhamma talks in several colleges, universities around Thailand. His Dhamma influenced on many meditation practitioners and became his disciples to spread his words up to the present.
Is Luangpor Teean really a Thai Buddhist reformist?
Considering his Dhamma and the way of mahasati meditation practice, Luangpor Teean is one of Buddhist reformist besides Buddhadāsa Bikkhu, and Ajanh Cha. Despite he did not much learn from the Scriptures, his teaching is really true that people can practice and realize the final goal after him. His way of interpreting the Dhamma is modernizing, truly fit to the modern world, scientific way and cut through the traditional belief. He interpreted the teachings of the Buddha in new way by his own experience. Meditation without using parikamma words and not related to any rituals. He was one who discovered “sudden enlightenment” in Thai Buddhism even though this concept of enlightenment was ever attained by Hui-Neng, the Sixth Supreme Patriarch of China. Luangpor Teean may not have known Hui-Neng, but why he discovered the same thing. Luangpor Teean must be right as he used to say that” The true Dhamma must attain the same thing”.
Luangpor Teean’s Interpretation of Dhamma
These are Luangpor Teean’s interpretation of the Dhamma. By his new way of interpretation on the Buddha Dhamma, he revealed the curtain of Buddha’s teachings which are traditionally believed for a long time, which made many distinctive in Thai Buddhism. Here are some interpretations and views as follows:
- Religion is a man, man is a religion.
- Buddha cut his hair only one time, means that the Buddha complete cut his kilesa only one time and never grow again.
- Nibbana is the state of being free from conceit, lobha, dosa, moha, or in other words: Nibbana is free from kilesa, tanha, upadāna. It is void or voidness in Thai” wang”. (Voidness is similar to Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu’s interpretation). And another meaning of Nibbana viewed by him is like the broken rope that will never be linked, removing of the links of samsara(circle of life)
- Kilesa(stickiness), tanha(heaviness)
- Birth and Death: Died from Kilesa, born in the Dhamma
- He never mentioned the life after death.
3.2. His Influence of Foreigners:
After he had built many meditation centers and taught across Thailand. His reputation traveled beyond the border. The country he went to spread his message the first is Laos, where he was accused of being a communist monk, but he gained the interest from the high-ranking young police,
who disguised as an ordinary person, came to practiced meditation under his guidance, then changed his direction when knowing that the way that Luangpor Teean was not concerned with any communist anti, but the Buddha’s teachings.
In 1982, Luangpor Teean was invited twice to Singapore, where he met Yamada Roshi, a Zen master from Japan. The two masters raised the question of what “sudden enlightenment”. Yamada Roshi emphasized concentration and the silent recitation of a koan (dharma riddle); Luangpor Teean emphasized awareness (without either concentration or recitation) through bodily movement and the “seeing” of thought. Yamada Roshi’s method still related to rituals and traditional belief while Luangpor Teean’s method goes beyond the rituals and Scriptures. Yamada Roshi believed that if once cannot practice step-by-step through reciting the koan or Dhamma riddle in this life, one can continue the next life to attain satori, enlightenment while Luangpor Teean did mention the life after, he emphasized that one can attain the enlightenment in this very life by cultivating the self-awareness without reciting any words and not clung to the Scriptures. In this case, it is obviously seen that, Luangpor Teean not only cut through Thai Buddhist tradition of practice, but also the foreign countries those believed in the tradition way of practice to the sudden enlightenment. He had new translation to the concept of sudden enlightenment. Nobody can claim that Luangpor Teean copy the idea of sudden enlightenment from Zen, because what he did discover is different from the Zen tradition, but enlightened the same thing.
Nowadays, Mahasati meditation gains international recognition. There are branches of Mahasati meditation centres in abroad, teaching the method of Luangpor Teean. For example:
- Association of the United States (BAUS) supported Luangpor Teean’s Sati Meditation Centre in New York.
- Mahasati Association of America
- Buddhaya Nandharam Temple , Las Vegas
- Mahasati Group in Taiwan
Luangpor Teean’s Mahasati meditation spread world wide, even through Mahayana tradition, some of them practice the way of Luangpor Teean like in Taiwan. In America, his teachings conquered the heart of some practitioners. As it is obviously seen that Westerners do not like rituals, so they come to practice Mahasati meditation. One of western people who practice Luangpor Teean’s technique is Ven. Charles Nirodho, who helps spread the messages of Luangpor Teean, translating Thai into English.
Dynamic Meditation has been known well through media, audio, books (English translation), websites, magazines, etc.
Important Points that attract Foreigners:
- Not concerned with rituals and Scriptures, free from blind belief.
- Sudden Enlightenment, quick way to realize the true Dhamma.
- Anyone can attain in this very life.
- No discrimination among nationalities, races, religions.
- Simple, normality, not complicated, but true
4. Conclusion and Critical Comments
Comparing to other meditation masters in contemporary Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism, Luangpor Teean’s teachings and his dynamic meditation are new phenomena. Traditionally, Theravada Buddhism in Southeast Asia, including Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia, represents a more conservative trend in Buddhism. They have been trying to preserve the traditional practice for a long history without any change. The traditional way of practice has emphasized on: Observing the sila (Precepts), the practice of Samadhi (concentration), studying from the teachers and Pali canon and practice vipassana from the Pali canon to gain pañña (wisdom). In observing sila and practice samadhi is aims at controlling the bodily, verbally, and mentally that can lead to wisdom.
In contrast, Luangpor Teean’s dynamic meditation has little to do with traditional Theravada practices. The dynamic meditation directly stimulates and develops awareness (sati), which encounters, sees thought and breaks through the chain of thought- the root of cause of greed, anger, and delusion. By developing awareness that can dominate over the thought true sila appears.
Sati sila samadhi pañña
According to Luangpor Teean, by developing sati, can lead to the controlling of body and mind then it is in the normal state as sati dominate all thoughts and sees feeling, sila will exist and develop automatically, then lead to samadhi (the quiet mind that sees a thought and the extinction of a thought, or sees a thing directly as it is outside of thought) and pañña (knowledge from this direct “seeing”) appear.
In addition, in Thai Theravada Buddhism, Luangpor Teean is considered as the Thai Buddhist reformist besides Buddhadāsa Bhikkhu. As Luangpor Teean attained the sudden Enlightenment since he was a layman, in Mahayana Buddhism, he is similar to Hui-Neng, the 6th Supreme Patriarch who attained the sudden enlightenment and both of them were first illiterate but attained the true Dhamma.
Therefore, Luangpor Teean is the Grand Mahasati meditation master ever, who contributed and reformed not only Thai Theravada Buddhism but Mahayana tradition around the world. His teachings and dynamic meditation have not only influenced Thai Buddhism but the foreign countries. His teachings and interpretation of the Dhamma, dynamic meditation techniques should be handed down and spread widely to help the many set free from suffering.
Anchalee Thaiyanond, Concentration-Insight: The Teaching of Luangpor Teean.
Bangkok: Thammasat University Press, 1989
______________________,Against the Stream: The Teaching of Luangpor Teean.
Bangkok: Thammasat University Press., 1986
Luangpor Teean, To one that feels. Bangkok: Supa Printing Co, Ltd., 3rd Ed 2005
_____________, Normality, Bangkok: Luangpor Teean Foundation, 2004
_____________, Nibbana, Bangkok: Medchai Printing House, 2006(Thai Version)
_____________, A Manual of Self-Awareness, Bangkok: Luangpor Teean Foundation
Teeansawangtham, Pakati: Luangpor Teean Cittasubho lae sing thi fakwai
[ Normality: Luangpor Teean Cittasubho and the things he left behind]: Bangkok: Klum Teeansawangtham, 1989.
. An Outline of the Understanding of Dynamic Meditation, by K.Khemananda
. The Dynamic Practices of Luangpor Teean, a Thai Meditation Master, Tavivat Puntarigvivat.
. Road to Freedom and Wisdom, by Luangpor Thong Abhakaro
. Using the Body to Heal the Mind, by Luangpor Thong Abhakaro
. Luangpor Teean, The Singular Quality and ordinary monk, by Vatana Supromajarkr, MD (Translated by Nirodho Bhikkhu)
 Hui-Neng(638-713), the Sixth Supreme Patriarch of China, who attained enlightenment as a layman, while he was overhearing the reciting of Diamond Sutra by a boy on the way he went to wood shop to sell the wood. His story found in the Platform Sutra.
 Achan Pan Anando, a Laotian monk, who was invited from Wat Mahathat Bangkok to live at Wat Rangsimukdaram, Tambol Pannprao, Amphur Tabon in Nongkai Province (Amphur Srichiengmai at present). And later, he was invited to live at Wat Buddhavongsa Sokpaluang, Vientiane, Laos.
 Luangpor Teean Cittasubho, Normality, p.223
 Luangpor Teean, Normality, p.35 and 247
 Luangpor Teean, To one that feels, the Teachings of Luangpor Teean, p.42
 Luangpor Teean Cittasubho, A Manual of Self-Awareness, Bangkok: 1994, p.17
 This is the same technique of Buddhadasa Bhikkhu as he suggested not closing eyes while sitting meditation.
 Tavivat Puntarigvivat, the Dynamic Practices of Luangpor Teean, a Thai meditation master, p.12
 K.Khemananda, Thai Buddhist monk, who studied Buddhism under Buddhadasa Bhikkhu, one of the great reformist Buddhist monks in Thailand, and Luangpor Teean, The Grand Master of Sati , Retrieved date: 15-11-06, http://www.baus.org/sati/achan_khemananda.htm